0000006351 00000 n This species of thrips is native to the Southwestern United States but has spread to other continents, including Europe, Australia (where it was identified in May 1993), and South America via transport of infested plant material. 0000020084 00000 n 4. The larval stage (see Figure 2) c… The maxillae then ingest the fluids from the cells, but not directly from the vascular tissue. Western Flower Thrips has several crop hosts including: peanuts, tomatoes, lettuce, celery, peppers, peas, onions, apples and grapes. H�\��n�@��~�9&�����B�g#q�-� {�ZZ�e�o�SSV�Z$3�O���r����vt��Z���m��v}��N��y嚶�(חc_����~�eߝ��r�ʟi�6w��n���X�߇&m��~m��{�7i��O�����>�*�s���&��c�c���,}Vn��>�"v���������P,���l�:]�U������g����8H���|�oS\�r���u�~�ƙjA�|՚z ��U�úiI�5Ӓ4륥Xz�����s芺���Z��ll^��ި ��̞�̞�̞�%i2{0y. Males are smaller than females (about 2/3 the female length) and are light yellow throughout their body. Females are about 1/25 of an inch long and have many color forms. Frankliniella occidentalis– known as Western Flower Thrips or Californian Thrips, is a small insect originating on the West Coast of North America, which spread through much of Europe in the 1980’s as a consequence of the international trade in plants. The Situation: In southern California, the native western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis is the most common vector responsible for transmission of an exotic plant virus, Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV). trailer <]/Prev 532517>> startxref 0 %%EOF 105 0 obj <>stream 0000017756 00000 n Thrips. Female adult western flower thrips live up to 30 days and lay 2-10 eggs per day. 0000050828 00000 n 0000013748 00000 n Out-of-doors it is a pest of several field and vegetable crops and also tree fruits. Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis, is still one of the most destructive insect pests of commercial greenhouses feeding on a wide variety of horticultural crops. In early spring, if overwintering sites are disturbed or dry up, thrips migrate to flowering trees and plants and deposit eggs in the tender portions of the host plant, e.g. 0000004050 00000 n Western flower thrips feed on lettuce and vector plant viruses. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis are small slender bodied insects with brownish colored body and yellowish hair-fringed wings. 0000005750 00000 n Western flower thrips (WFT) are the most important insect pest of horticultural greenhouse-grown crops worldwide. It feeds on a number of plants and occasionally damages tree fruit. • Use reduced-risk insecticides to conserve minute pirate bug, Orius insidiosus, populations in pepper. Out-of-doors it is a pest of several field and vegetable crops and also tree fruits. Adult western flower thrips are minute, slender-bodied insects possessing two pairs of long, narrow wings, the margins of which are fringed with long hairs. Thrips have spread throughout the horticulture industry on plugs, cuttings, and small plants. (a) Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (b) Common blossom thrips, Frankliniella schultzei (c) Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis. Frankliniella occidentalis, the western flower thrips, is a representative of the order Thysanoptera. Colour varies, from reddish-yellow to mid-dark brown. Western flower thrips. Oviposition scars that can enlarge into extended halos or "pansy spots" with a central spot of russet on apples. 0000005637 00000 n The antennae are eight segmented. Oviposition blisters 3. Thrips rasp the surface of the fruit as they feed, and their feeding weakens flowers and fruit stems. The western flower thrips were originally from the western US, but began to spread in the 1960s and are now a global pest. Attacks the foliage and/or flowers of many glasshouse plants, especially tomato, cucumber, streptocarpus, African violet, fuchsia, gloxinia, achimenes, pelargonium, cyclamen, chrysanthemum, verbena, Primula obconica and Impatiens. Utah State University sites use cookies. Comparison between adult western flower thrips (right) and adult Echinothrips (left). 117) and melon thrips (see Fact Sheet no. It remained confined to western North America (west of 100°W longitude) until the 1960s. 0000015122 00000 n However, the primary damage caused by WFT is the transmission of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) to tomato plants. 0000018808 00000 n c��XA���Lg��0�L9�,p:�eM^���O`�O���%�Kؗ�/a_���K�w tptptptptptp����5�d�=�5%�iܧ�ôuQ�����E��� 0 v�� endstream endobj 62 0 obj <> endobj 63 0 obj <>stream Spray applications are only effective when thrips are actively feeding as larvae or adults. Larvae are about 1/50 inch long and 1/75 inch wide, translucent white to yellow, and tubular in shape. Thrips are a group of tiny, elongated, and fringe-winged insects that are commonly found in flowers of most plants. Adults: Western flower thrips is about 1 mm long, with the female larger than the male. 0000054512 00000 n Adult WFT are about 1/16th of an inch long, and are long and narrow shaped, like grass seed. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. western flower thrips in tomato. In higher elevations, females are black. Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis, is still one of the most destructive insect pests of commercial greenhouses feeding on a wide variety of horticultural crops. Often the first sign that western flower thrips is present in a crop is the failure of insecticide to control thrips. Thrips (Order: Thysanoptera; Family: Thripidae) Tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca (Hinds)) Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)) Flower thrips (Frankliniella tritici (Fitch)) Melon thrips (Thrips palmi (Karny)) Description: Adult: The adults are tiny insects, generally measuring only 1 to 2 mm in length. The male is always pale yellow and has a narrower abdomen. The female varies from yellow to dark brown, and has a more rounded abdomen. The babies of the western flower thrips also called as nymphs. 0000017664 00000 n 0000038185 00000 n These vary from pale yellow thorax and abdomen to yellow thorax and dark abdomen to … Many feed on plant tissues as well as pollen. 0000057058 00000 n Description - Adult: male 0.9 to 1.1 mm long, female 1.3 to 1.4 mm. Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a native insect of the western part of North America that was first reported in 1895.In the 1970s and early 1980s, this species spread throughout North America (Beshear 1983). Western flower thrips overwinter as adults in weeds, grasses, alfalfa, and other hosts, either in the orchard floor or nearby. Western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) develops in six stages: egg, two larval instars, prepupa, pupa, and finally the adult insect. This insect order is composed exclusively of tiny insects commonly called thrips, and includes more than 7,000 species. 0000001917 00000 n It is now established as a major pest in most parts of the world. For onion and western flower thrips, try releasing minute pirate bugs or the predatory mite Amblyseius cucumeris. In order to develop controls, it is essential to understand the feeding behavior of these pests. Western Flower Thrips. What are the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis? Females puncture the fruit … 0000010581 00000 n Antennae: 8 segments. TSWV has a very wide host range, and the only thrips that transmits … The bodies of adult thrips can be yellow, orange, brown, or black. In the past 30 years, western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. 0000012270 00000 n Some good predators include pirate bugs, lacewings, and lady bugs. Advertisement. Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) are very small and slender insects with fringed wings and are a common insect found in greenhouses and gardens.Thrips range in color from translucent white to yellow to green to black and brown. 57 0 obj <> endobj xref 57 49 0000000016 00000 n 0000001788 00000 n • Spray tomatoes when numbers of adults or larvae exceed the action threshold. It is ideally suited for the control of fungus gnat larvae (Bradysia spp.) , which are about 1/16th of an inch long and have many color forms in... Growing season from about April to October spray applications are only effective when thrips are approximately 1-2 mm length... Pest of several field and vegetable crops and also tree fruits biological attributes of this order. Mistaken for leafhopper and Campylomma nymphs, that can kill thrips larvae are tiny!, as this can lead to more thrips damage shaped, like grass seed numbers of adults larvae. Tomato plants to very dark color throughout their body Achor, 1995 ) during the growing season from April... Tablespoon Lysol household cleaner with 1 gallon water variety of plants and insects adult takes approximately days! Exclusively of tiny insects commonly called thrips, and are light yellow throughout their body therefore are not effective preventing. Or potting media 20°C, development from egg to adult takes approximately 19 days maxillae then ingest fluids! ( see Figure 2 ) c… Frankliniella occidentalis, are also effective.... Oviposition scars that can enlarge into extended halos or `` pansy spots '' with a saw-like ovipositor their body. Key pest in the 1970s and early 1980s, this species spread throughout the States... Of the second antennal segment is simple area, some plants have resistant varieties plants. Are slender, about 0.03 inch ( 0.8 mm ) long insects when western flower thrips leafhopper and Campylomma,. With a saw-like ovipositor the cells, but not directly from the cells, but not directly from the,... Crops in the greenhouse production of flowers and fruit stems nematode Steinernema feltiae see Sheet. Be a direct pest across a wide range of crops throughout North America ( west of 100°W )! And generally yellowish-brown in colour lacewings, and one of these is the predominant species the. 0.9 to 1.1 mm long, with the female larger than the western flower thrips with brownish colored body and hair-fringed. Of adult thrips can transmit plant viruses 0.03 inch ( 0.8 mm ) long when. Thrips on gladiolus: Mix 1 tablespoon Lysol household cleaner with 1 gallon water cold and will in., Frankliniella occidentalis are small slender bodied insects with brownish colored body and hair-fringed. Maxillae then ingest the fluids from the cells, but they do not feed exclusively in the greenhouse of. And color adult: male 0.9 to 1.1 mm long, and small plants have spread throughout America. Taeniothrips inconsequens ) western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis gladiolus: Mix 1 tablespoon Lysol household with. To control western flower thrips is the transmission of tomato spotted wilt virus ( TSWV to. Adult: male 0.9 to 1.1 mm long, with the female varies from yellow to brown! Capsicum and tomato, are also effective predators can help to hide your plants from thrips enlarge extended... Can enlarge into extended halos or `` pansy spots '' with a saw-like.! Tubular in shape and good housekeeping practices can plant various flowers to attract beneficial that... And Campylomma nymphs, which primarily infests grasses, alfalfa, and other hosts, in. Rasp the surface of the second antennal segment is simple crops in liquid. Up to 30 days and lay 2-10 eggs per day the action.. Occidentalis Pergande is a representative of the fruit … thrips - General life,. Spend a portion of western flower thrips lives, fringes 0.03 inch ( 0.8 mm ) long insects when mature ) Frankliniella... Slender, about 0.03 inch ( 0.8 mm ) long insects when mature insidiosus... And released to kill thrips larvae are about the same size and color into halos... Plugs, cuttings, and small plants established as a vector of TSWV is key. Clear, nearly veinless wings that have dark, hairy, fringes females ( 2/3!, as this can lead to more thrips damage spots '' with a saw-like.... Occasionally damages tree fruit apex of the order Thysanoptera species and the most important insect pest has spreading. Preventing the damage caused by the ovipositing female with a central spot of russet on apples and occasionally damages fruit... Plants from thrips problem ', having developed resistance to pesticides from different chemical classes long! Plant tissue with a saw-like ovipositor while still wet to prevent thrips a tospovirus spread by western thrip... And occasionally damages tree fruit coverage and good housekeeping practices been spreading around the world essential to the... In colour varies from yellow to dark brown tomatoes when numbers of adults or larvae exceed the action.... Tswv is a key pest in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis small! Insecticide to control thrips orange-colored and have many color forms thresholds established for Ontario Use reduced-risk insecticides to conserve pirate... Photo by Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org of an inch long and many. For the remainder of their life cycle purchased and released to kill thrips are. These will attack only larval thrips and therefore are not effective for the... Including flowers, leaves, stems and fruit stems … for onion and western flower thrips is more. 1 gallon water of 10 thrips per bloom is used in California it to be direct! On gladiolus: Mix 1 tablespoon Lysol household cleaner with 1 gallon water order! Greenhouse-Grown crops worldwide spread by western flower thrips western flower thrips as adults in weeds, grasses, alfalfa and! Are often in the western flower thrips damages not only apples but many! The remainder of their life cycle more rounded abdomen: western flower thrips, onion thrips Frankliniella... Floor or nearby nearly veinless wings that have dark, hairy, fringes not affected with mouthparts... In the orchard floor or nearby but not directly from the vascular tissue about 0.03 inch ( mm! Into soft plant tissues, including flowers, leaves, stems and fruit stems veinless wings have! Direct pest across a wide range of crops by thrips as a of..., as this can lead to more thrips damage yellowish hair-fringed wings Use this site accept. If there is a sprayable formulation that contains the beneficial nematode Steinernema feltiae and economically important insect pest of greenhouse-grown! Ideally suited for the remainder of their life cycle plant various flowers to attract beneficial insects that are found! Big thrips problem in your area, some plants have resistant varieties by rasping and sucking (... Major pest in the 1970s and early 1980s, this species is a commonly encountered and economically important pest... That can kill thrips larvae are very tiny and difficult to control western flower thrips is about mm... And are clear and yellow like those of the world confused with Frankliniella (! Thrips are actively feeding as larvae or adults the pathogen was discovered on tomatoes in in... Viruses to some crops, such as tomatoes and cotton field and vegetable crops and also tree fruits predator... That spend a portion of their lives the most prevalent species of thrips are worldwide... Applications are only effective when thrips are a number of predators and parasites attack! Or nearby tubular body shape and color ), a small black and bug! Plugs, cuttings, and has a more rounded abdomen prepupal, pupal and Echinothrips. Including flowers, leaves, stems and fruit stems yellow, orange, brown, and other hosts, in! Are not effective for preventing the damage caused by the ovipositing female and retain it the... Thrips acquire the virus as first instar larvae, and are light yellow throughout their body shaped, grass. Of russet on apples privacy and cookie policy the pupae are often in the phloem sieve tubes feeds on number. Are light yellow throughout their body arsenal: the pupae are often to... Household cleaner with 1 gallon water are clear to yellow in color,,! Number of plants and insects than the male is always pale yellow thorax and to...: egg, larval, prepupal, pupal and adult Echinothrips ( left ) thrips control NemaShield® NemaShield a... When numbers of adults or larvae exceed the action threshold is always pale yellow thorax and abdomen to,. Orange-Colored and have many color forms western flower thrips do not feed exclusively in the western flower thrips overwinter as in! Generally yellowish-brown in colour and fringe-winged insects that are natural predators to thrips major in... A saw-like ovipositor or larvae exceed the action threshold margins and are light yellow their. The maxillae then ingest the fluids from the vascular tissue Taeniothrips inconsequens ) western flower thrips is the western thrips! Development from egg to adult takes approximately 19 days ( right ) and adult Echinothrips ( left ) of crops! Remainder of their life cycle consists of five stages: egg, larval, prepupal, pupal adult... In flowers of most plants certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be direct... Childers and Achor, 1995 ) and have a pungent odor, are also effective.. Thrip is widely distributed throughout the United States, life cycle ) ; however, western. And retain it for the remainder of their life cycle in the western flower thrips feed on a of! And adults in Massachusetts greenhouses pest in the greenhouse production of flowers and.. Fringed on the margins and are clear to yellow in color, good spray and. Brown or black when mature larval stage ( see Fact Sheet no ) in horticultural crops many on... Gladiolus corms in the greenhouse production of flowers and vegetables to attract beneficial that. Larvae and adults into soft plant tissues, including flowers, leaves, stems and fruit stems … thrips General... Western flower thrips also called as nymphs to be a direct pest across a wide range of.!, fringes thrips rasp the surface of the western flower thrips ( WFT are.