104: 243–251. Ren, D., Li, Y., Zhao, F., Sang, X., Shi, J., Wang, N., Guo, S., Ling, Y., Zhang, C., Yang, Z., He, G. 2013. The inflorescence is a dense, hairy panicle leading to a sharp point, open or contracted. Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae). 2006. five fused sepals. The structures containing the flowers are called SPIKELETS. Fortune, P.M., Schierenbeck, K.A., Ainouche, A.K., Jacquemin, J., Wendel, J.F., Ainouche, M.L. If all you know about grasses is that they are the stuff of lawns, then you will be surprised by just how complex, pretty and interesting grasses can be.The grass at the right is a very common species, Annual Bluegrass, Poa annua, found throughout most of North America and much of the rest of the world. Vollbrecht, E., Springer, P.S., Goh, L., Buckler, E.S., Martienssen, R. 2005. Forma de crecimiento en. Nine-awned Grass is a very useful pioneer that can quickly colonise and protect disturbed veld. Plant Phys. An SNP caused loss of seed shattering during rice domestication. Liu, Q., Peterson, P.M., Columbus, J.T., Zhao, N., Hao, G., Zhang, D. 2007. Institute of Applied Agriculture Recommended for you. Parts of a typical grass (based on Bromus). 8:39 . Developmental morphology of the growing point of the shoot and the inflorescence in grasses. Proc. 4. doi: Kern, V.G., Guarise, N.J., Vegetti, A.C. 2008. Komiya, R., Ikegami, A., Tamaki, S., Yokoi, S., Shimamoto, K. 2008. pedicel. Science 312: 1392–1396. Plant Phys. Science 311: 1936–1939. Danilevskaya, O.N., Meng, X., Hou, Z.L., Ananiev, E.V., Simmons, C.R. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying spikelet development and evolution are attractive to both … 2010. Judziewicz, E.J., Clark, L.G., Londoño, X., Stern, M.J. 1999. The grass inflorescence is striking not only for its beauty and diversity, but also for its developmental complexity. Zhu, K., Tang, D., Yan, C., Chi, Z., Yu, H., Chen, J., Liang, J., Gu, M., Cheng, Z. Ann. The bamboos: a fresh perspective. Feddes Repert. It is a hardy grass that can occur in dense stands in veld, especially after droughts and/or overgrazing. When the spikelets are attached by means of … 1966. Biol. A TCP transcription factor, Baumel, A., Ainouche, M.L., Bayer, R.J., Ainouche, A.K., Misset, M.T. Among these, the change from the indeterminate phase to the determinate spikelet phase is a crucial factor governing inflorescence structure. Collar (Orchard Grass) Reed Canary Grass. Developmental gene evolution and the origin of grass inflorescence diversity. The morphology of woody bamboos. 2007. These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. Gao, X., Liang, W., Yin, C., Ji, S., Wang, H., Su, X., Guo, C., Kong, H., Xue, H., Zhang, D. 2010. 1969. J. Bot. Apikale Reduktionen im Infloreszenzbereich der Gramineae. Variation in the interaction between alleles of, Huang, X., Qian, Q., Liu, Z., Sun, H., He, S., Luo, D., Xia, G., Chu, C., Li, J., Fu, X. 96: 1419–1429. Floral initiation in field crops: an atlas of scanning electron micrographs. Floral development and the formation of unisexual spikelets in the Andropogoneae (Poaceae). Natl. The existence of compound inflorescences is not in itself a problem. Heterogeneous expression patterns and separate roles of the SEPALLATA gene. Temporal regulation of the phase change in each meristem determines the spatial arrangement of spikelets in the inflorescence. Rice, Ikeda-Kawakatsu, K., Yasuno, N., Oikawa, T., Iida, S., Nagato, Y., Maekawa, M., Kyozuka, J. A small stalk bearing one flower . During inflorescence formation, new meristems continuously initiate and follow a series of phase changes. Angiosperm phylogeny website. J. Bot. Adv. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Konishi, S., Izawa, T., Lin, S.Y., Ebana, K., Fukuta, Y., Sasaki, T., Yano, M. 2006. 0000104428 00000 n 0000002790 00000 n 0000051642 00000 n 0000088894 00000 n Spikelets. Willdenowia 9: 161–167. 2012. Inflorescence architecture and floral morphology vary extensively within the Poaceae, but the functional significance of this variation remains largely unknown. New York: Academic Press. Stapleton, C.M.A. 2012. Reproductive morphology of the early-divergent grass. Evol. pp. 1999. Opinion Pl. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Vegetti, A.C., Anton, A.M. 1996. Lazakis, C.M., Coneva, V., Colasanti, J. Li, M., Tang, D., Wang, K., Wu, X., Lu, L., Yu, H., Gu, M., Yan, C., Cheng, Z. All of the aboveground section of a grass is collectively called the shoot. 2005. pp. 149: 56–62. A large, coarse grass noted for its ability to grow in very wet or very dry soils. For example, Apiaceae often bear compound umbels, Asteraceae have panicles of capitula, and lilacs or many Clusiceae are characterized by panicles of cymes (Stevens 2012). Overexpression of, Nalam, V.J., Vales, M.I., Watson, C.J.W., Johnson, E.B., Riera-Lizarazu, O. Gallavotti, A., Malcomber, S., Gaines, C., Stanfield, S., Whipple, C., Kellogg, E., Schmidt, R.J. 2011. 2006. Science 309: 741–745. Whipple, C.J., Hall, D.H., DeBlasio, S., Taguchi-Shiobara, F., Schmidt, R.J., Jackson, D.P. The synflorescence concept in Poaceae. Amer. 2001 onward. 2002. Doust, A.N., Kellogg, E.A. Raceme: When peduncle (or main axis) is elongated and flowers … Mus. Version 12, July 2012 [and more or less continuously updated since]. A panicle-type inflorescence (left) contains branches while spikelets are attached directly to the inflorescence stem in a spike-type inflorescence (right). Opinion Pl. Darwiniana 44: 7–17. The FM produces the floret, which consists of floral organs (carpel, stamen and lodicule) and two outer organ types (palea and lemma) enclosing the floral organs. grass below the inflorescence) Leaf - leaves 2-ranked (occur on opposite sides of culm), and arranged alternately on culm Roots –Fibrous roots Inflorescence –the flowering and seed forming (reproduction) part of a grass plant Although many terms will be defined, knowledge of some basic botanical terminology is expected. The upper part, which is called the blade, and the lower part called the sheath. two united petals. In: Wilson, K.L., Morrison, D.A. 2008. FRIZZY PANICLE is required to prevent the formation of axillary meristems and to establish floral meristem identity in rice spikelets. Doust, A.N., Mauro-Herrera, M., Francis, A.D., Shand, L.C. Doust, A.N., Devos, K.M., Gadberry, M., Gale, M.D., Kellogg, E.A. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Flowering Plants. Larson, S.R., Kellogg, E.A. Cytokinins: activity, biosynthesis, and translocation. A developmental study of wild rice. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180°, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. Wallingford: CAB International. Galinat, W. 1959. PDF | On Sep 1, 1982, Kelly Wayne Allred published Describing the Grass Inflorescence | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Reproductive development of the apex of. Proc. Grass Weeds - Part 1 - Duration: 8:39. Grass sheath, node, ligule, auricle and parts relating to the inflorescence. Wu, C.Y., You, C.J., Li, C.S., Long, T., Cgeb, G.X., Byrne, M.E., Zhang, Q.F. Typology of the synflorescence of Andropogoneae (Poaceae), additional comments. Zhou, Y., Lu, D., Li, C., Luo, J., Zhu, B.-F., Zhu, J., Shangguan, Y., Wang, Z., Sang, T., Zhou, B., Han, B. Simons, K.J., Fellers, J.P., Trick, H.N., Zhang, Z., Tai, Y.-S., Gill, B.S., Faris, J.D. The arrangement and maturation of spikelets (notflow- USA 105: 12915–12920. Grass architecture: genetic and environmental control of branching. The structure of the paracladial zone in Poaceae. Troll, W. 1964. Not affiliated In this type of inflorescence, the main axis continues to grow and does not terminate in a flower and gives off flowers laterally in an acropetal manner (where old flowers are arranged on lower side and young flowers on upper side). Here I use the term inflorescence in part because it is widely used and also because the term is commonly applied to both simple and compound structures. In grasses, the inflorescence meristem (IM) reiteratively initiates a series of lateral meristems with slightly different fates. Examples: Festuca, Paspalum (crown grass), Echinochloa (barnyard grass), etc. Because of this compound structure, some authors prefer to use the term “synflorescence” for grasses, to distinguish the inflorescence from non-compound inflorescences (Judziewicz et al. 57: 431–449. When the spikelets are attached to the rachis with short pedicels, the inflorescence is termed as raceme. Amer. Dmitry D. Sokoloff, Isabel Marques, Terry D. Macfarlane, Margarita V. Remizowa, Vivienne K.Y. Morphologically, it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. 28: 2147–2159. Taxon 45: 453–460. Grass Species (Orchard Grass) Figure 13b. —4. 2005. 2008. Cite as. Opinion Pl. BARREN STALK FASTIGIATE1 is an AT-hook protein required for the formation of maize ears. There are two parts to a grass leaf. 2004. Rice domestication by reducing shattering. Woods, D.P., Hope, C.L., Malcomber, S.T. 2006. The maize, Chuck, G., Meeley, R., Hake, S. 2008. Int. Perreta, M.G., Ramos, J.C., Vegetti, A.C. 2009. Leaflike parts that cover and protect the flower bud. Frontiers Plant Sci. 2010. Preston, J.C., Christensen, A., Malcomber, S.T., Kellogg, E.A. 2006. 96: 549–564. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-417162-6.00007-9. The flat stems and the coarsely tufted panicle. 2011. 113: 931–942. Preston, J.C., Wang, H., Doebley, J., Kellogg, E.A. Acad. Because of this compound structure, some authors prefer to use the term “synflorescence” for grasses, to distinguish the inflorescence from non-compound inflorescences (Judziewicz et al. 2000. Illustration of biology, pedicel, flower - 146723215 Colasanti, J., Coneva, V. 2009. On some grasses, a sheathlike bract, called spathe,encloses or partly encloses the seedhead Flora 191: 231–234. Stür, W.W. 1986. 1989. edge of legume and grass plant leaf, stem, and inflorescence characteristics; being able to recognize thecommonlyusedforagespecies;andperhapsbeing familiar with a few common forage crop weeds. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO. It is becoming apparent that the structure of the grass inflorescence is controlled by regulation of the maintenance of the indeterminate phase and/or the transition to the determinate spikelet phase, which is partly achieved through the control of meristem cell proliferation. Diversification of inflorescence development in the PCK clade (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. 10: 26–31. Amer. MADS-box gene expression and implications for developmental origins of the grass spikelet. To identify a grass using this pdf guide you need to first look closely at the inflorescence (flowering head) and decide if it is a spike or a panicle (branched). Beyond taxonomy: prospects for understanding morphological diversity in the grasses (Poaceae). Arber, A. The first problem is that grasses bear compound inflorescences, in which the terminal unit is in fact an unbranched cluster of flowers; each of these unbranched clusters is a tiny spike, or spikelet. Plant Phys. 10: 21–25. 1997. Trends Genet. 146: 250–264. Evolutionary dynamics of, Fraser, J., Kokko, E.G. Conservation and divergence of, Preston, J.C., Kellogg, E.A. 1934. Leaf rolling controlled by the homeodomain leucine zipper class IV gene, © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-15332-2_2, The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Two AP2 family genes. Liu, Q., Oelke, E.A., Porter, R.A., Reuter, R. 1998. It consists of two glumes and one or more florets. 2004. Vegetti, A.C., Weberling, F. 1996. Ann. Flower. Nature 436: 714–719. Lee, D.Y., An, G. 2012. Morphological diversity and genetic regulation of inflorescence abscission zones in grasses. Kellogg, E.A. Malcomber, S.T., Preston, J.C., Reinheimer, R., Kossuth, J., Kellogg, E.A. Vegetti, A.C., Pensiero, J.F. —1. The combination of spatial and temporal patterns specified by the spikelet meristem after the transition to reproduction determines the overall inflorescence structure. A new family of DNA binding proteins includes putative transcriptional regulators of the. Within the Gramineae family, flowers form in a spikelet, or small branch, unique to the grass species. Tamaki, S., Matsuo, S., Wong, H.L., Yokoi, S., Shimamoto, K. 2007. 89: 1203–1222. 1999; Stapleton 1997). Formation of panicles and hermaphroditic florets in wild-rice. 2012. These are similar in complexity to the inflorescence part that they are associated with (Weber, 1975; Cavalcanti & Rua, 2008) ... Hansjoerg Kraehmer, Flower and Inflorescence, Grasses, 10.1002/9781119417095, (29-87), (2019). ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. … 1993. 2005. FIGURE 1. Beitr. Description Length up to 1 m. The leaves and culms are covered with dense, velvety hairs. (eds.) 2006. If it is a spike it will be either a diffuse, cylindrical or two-sided spike. Genet. Evolution of reproductive structures in grasses (Poaceae) inferred by sister-group comparisons with their putative closest living relatives, Ecdeiocoleaceae. American bamboos. The basal unit of grass inflorescences, the spikelet, is a short, condensed branch containing leaf-like structures known as glumes, which enclose one or more florets. 1999; Stapleton 1997). The wheat and barley vernalization gene. corolla. Grass inflorescence is defined as a compound spike that has complex branching patterns with multiple spikelets. Hernández, J.C., Rua, G. 1992. Morphological, anatomical, and taxonomic studies in. Res. … when surveying grassland plots as part of the Irish Plant Monitoring Scheme. —3. Houston, K., McKim, S.M., Comadran, J., Bonar, N., Druka, I., Uzrek, N., Cirillo, E., Guzy-Wrobelska, J., Collins, N.C., Halpin, C., Hansson, M., Dockter, C., Druka, A., Waugh, R. 2013. An indeterminate inflorescence may be a raceme, panicle, spike, catkin, corymb, umbel, spadix, or head. Here I use the term inflorescence in part because it is widely used and also because the term is commonly applied to both simple and compound structures. These are in fact a spike of spikelets, a raceme of spikelets, and a panicle of spikelets respectively. 2013. 2009. RID1, encoding a Cys2/His2-type zinc finger transcription factor, acts as a master switch from vegetative to floral development in rice. Floral meristem initiation and meristem cell fate are regulated by the maize, Chuck, G., Whipple, C., Jackson, D., Hake, S. 2010. Ashikari, M., Sakakibara, H., Lin, S.Y., Yamamoto, T., Takashi, T., Nishimura, A., Angeles, E.R., Qian, Q., Kitano, H., Matsuoka, M. 2005. Bai, F., Reinheimer, R., Durantini, D., Kellogg, E.A., Schmidt, R.J. 2012. Sci. Bot. Reconstructing the evolutionary history of paralogous, Preston, J.C., Kellogg, E.A. When the spikelets are attached directly to the rachis the inflorescence is called a spike (wheat, rye, barley, ryegrass). 9: e1003604. Phylogenomic analyses of the BARREN STALK1/LAX PANICLE1 (BA1/LAX1) genes and evidence for their roles during axillary meristem development. (eds.) Nature 441: 227–230. Peterson, P.M., Romaschenko, K., Herrera Arrieta, Y., Saarela, J.M. The inflorscence is the arrangement of flowers on a plant and, even though the flowers of … In some grasses the inflorescence will be one-sided. McClure, F.A. Beitr. Yan, L., Loukolanov, A., Tranquilli, G., Helguera, M., Fahima, T., Dubcovsky, J. 2009. The control of spikelet meristem identity by the, Chuck, G., Meeley, R., Irish, E., Sakai, H., Hake, S. 2007. Heterochronic development of the floret meristem determines grain number per spikelet in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats. Plant Cell 23: 1756–1771. Plant Phys. Genetic dissection of seed production traits and identification of a major-effect seed retention QTL in hybrid, Latting, J. Ikeda, K., Ito, M., Nagasawa, N., Kyozuka, J., Nagato, Y. Bot. 2012. 1999. Vegetti, A.C. 1991. Distinct roles of the SEPALLATA gene. 1A). Rudall, P.J., Stuppy, W., Cunniff, J., Kellogg, E.A., Briggs, B.G. 2012. flower calyx. PLoS Genet. 251–267. 2007. 2009. Thompson, B.E., Hake, S. 2009. Wellmer, F., Riechmann, J.L. Studies show that a combination of innovative grass-specific genes and usage of widely conserved genes in conserved, modified and unique ways has allowed the establishment of the spikelet system. New York: Macmillan. Compound panicle and —1. The upper part, which is called the blade, and the lower part called the sheath. It forms a loose sod. Mutations in the F-box gene. Gene networks controlling the initiation of flower development. Each flower is borne on a short stalk, called a pedicel. Nature 436: 1119–1126. the collective term for all sepals and petals in a flower. Biol. Recent progress in molecular genetic studies has enabled the isolation of key regulators controlling grass inflorescence form. 120: 875–893. Muszynski, M.G., Dam, T., Li, B., Shirbroun, D.M., Hou, Z., Bruggemann, E., Archibald, R., Ananiev, E.V., Danilevskaya, O.N. 2010. Illustration about Structure of grass spikelet. Within the shoot are separate parts called the stem, the leaves, and the seed head (inflorescence). Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. 101: 1759–1769. Curr. J. Agric. J. Bot. Differentiation in the grass inflorescence. Evans, M.W. Inflorecence scheme and floral diagram. The spikelet is the basic unit defining the inflorescence structure of these species. 2009. Zur deskriptiven und vergleichend morphologischen Terminologie komplexer Infloreszenzen. peanut flowers. sepals. The relationship between auxin transport and maize branching. Terao, T., Nagata, K., Morino, K., Hirose, T. 2009. Weberling, F. 1989. Panicle, spikelet, and floret development in orchardgrass (. Grasses, however, generally exhibit a determi- nate growth pattern of the overall flowering shoot, with the most mature spikelets toward the apex and least mature toward the base (asipetal). 2007. 75: 377–396. In most literature on the grasses, the spikelets are considered to be analogous to flowers, and the inflorescence is described using terminology borrowed from eudicots. Kurtziana 21: 275–278. Reinheimer, R., Pozner, R., Vegetti, A.C. 2005. Sajo, M.G., Longhi-Wagner, H., Rudall, P.J. Appl. The Flower Head or Inflorescence The part of the grass plant popularly known as the flower, is actually composed of many small flowers hidden, except at flowering time, within scales or bracts. A schematic representation of a grass inflorescence is shown. 2007. Portion of leaf. Discrete developmental roles for temperate cereal grass. Floral development and embryology in the early-divergent grass, Sajo, M.G., Longhi-Wagner, H.M., Rudall, P.J. The Gramineae: a study of cereal, bamboo, and grass. J. Bot. Architecture of floral branch systems in maize and related grasses. a unit of grass inflorescence. Zhang, L., Zhao, Y.-L., Gao, L.-F., Zhao, G.-Y., Zhou, R.-H., Zhang, B.-S., Jia, J.-Z. 2011. Reinheimer, R., Zuloaga, F.O., Vegetti, A.C., Pozner, R. 2009. A revision of the genus. pp. Brown, P.J., Klein, P.E., Bortiri, E., Acharya, C.B., Rooney, W.L., Kresovich, S. 2006. (ed.) Biol. Sakakibara, H. 2006. Thus, an axis bearing sessile spikelets is called a spike (e.g., Triticum, Lolium), as though it were an axis bearing sessile flowers. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. 11: 541–547. Reinheimer, R., Vegetti, A.C. 2008. Bot. 1 – glume, 2 – lemma, 3 – awn, 4 – palea, 5 – lodicules, 6 – stamens, 7 – ovary, 8 – styles. Doust, A.N. The spikelet is composed of one to several f… Kellogg, E.A., Hiser, K.M., Doust, A.N. Leafl. The completed score sheets can provide contest entrants and interested observers with a detailed record of the scoring and placing of samples on display in a crops show following the judging. Plant Cell 22: 565–578. Flowers of Poaceae are characteristically arranged in spikelets, each having one or more florets. Butzin, R. 1979. The bamboos. 84–88. Monocots: systematics and evolution. Res. A conserved mechanism of bract suppression in the grass family. I. Jena: Gustav Fischer. Monocots Skirpan, A., Wu, X., McSteen, P. 2008. The maize SBP-box transcription factor encoded by, Clayton, W.D. Zou, L., Sun, X., Zhang, Z., Liu, P., Wu, J., Tian, C., Qiu, J., Lu, T. 2011. 46: 69–78. petals. Curr. The origin of the naked grains of maize. 2004. 147: 1913–1923. 55: 787–797. A trehalose metabolic enzyme controls inflorescence architecture in maize. 92: 1432–1443. Inflorescence diversity and evolution in the PCK clade (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). Le Roux, L.G., Kellogg, E.A. 2007. perianth. This is a preview of subscription content. 12:17. Bot. Map-based cloning of the, Preston, J.C., Hileman, L.C. Our grass dataset voluntary does not include domesticated grass … Not logged in USA 101: 9045–9050. Kobayashi, K., Maekawa, M., Miyao, A., Hirochika, H., Kyozuka, J. Chuck, G., Meeley, R., Hake, S. 1998. 19: 1–32. Kellogg, E.A., Camara, P.E.A.S., Rudall, P.J., Ladd, P., Malcomber, S.T., Whipple, C.J., Doust, A.N. Diagram of portion of grass inflorescence isolated on white background. Expression level of, Judziewicz, E.J., Soderstrom, T.R. Genetic and physical interaction suggest that BARREN STALK1 is a target of BARREN INFLORESCENCE2 in maize inflorescence development. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. legume corolla. Plant Syst. The spikelet is a unique structure of inflorescence in grasses that generates one to many flowers depending on its determinate or indeterminate meristem activity. 2014. Floral displays: genetic control of grass inflorescences. The phytomer in relation to the floral homologies in the American Maydeae. SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN 1 initiates flowering in, Preston, J.C., Kellogg, E.A. Grass inflorescences are complex, and formed from several types of meristem. Inflorescence diversification in the panicoid “bristle grass” clade (Paniceae, Poaceae): evidence from molecular phylogenies and developmental morphology. 2005. Kojima, S., Takahashi, Y., Kobayashi, Y., Monna, L., Sasaki, T., Araki, T., Yano, M. 2002. 2006. Curr. The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. —2. A gene controlling the number of primary rachis branches also controls the vascular bundle formation and hence is responsible to increase the harvest index and grain yield of rice. Distinguishing features. The grass genera of the world: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval; including synonyms, morphology, anatomy, physiology, phytochemistry, cytology, classification, pathogens, world and local distribution, and references, 23rd April 2010 edn. The synflorescence of Poaceae. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and inflorescence development of the genus. inflorescence (which matures to become the seed head), leaves and associated structures are used for identification, as well as overall appearance of the grass plant. (Note also that the term pedicel itself is misapplied in the grasses, referring to the stalk of the spikelet rather than the stalk of a flower.) Weberling, F., Müller-Doblies, U., Müller-Doblies, D. 1993. pp 25-38 | Biol. Plant J. inflorescene sheath node tiller auricle ligule blade lemma spikelet awn glume Inflorescence meristem identity in rice is specified by overlapping functions of three. Nakagawa, M., Shimamoto, K., Kyozuka, J. 149: 38–45. The control of maize spikelet meristem identity by the, Chuck, G., Muszynski, M., Kellogg, E., Hake, S., Schmidt, R.J. 2002. Kobayashi, K., Yasuno, N., Sato, Y., Yoda, M., Yamazaki, R., Kimizu, M., Yoshida, H., Nagamura, Y., Kyozuka, J. Mol. Control of phyllotaxy by the cytokinin-inducible response regulator homologue. Moncur, M.W. Biol. Part of Springer Nature. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Positional cloning of the wheat vernalization gene, Yan, L., Fu, D., Li, C., Blechl, A., Tranquilli, G., Bonafede, M., Sanchez, A., Valarik, M., Yasuda, S., Dubcovsky, J. Plant Biol. Sobre politelia en las inflorescencias de Poaceae. Inflorescence, spikelet, and floral development in, Reinheimer, R., Malcomber, S.T., Kellogg, E.A. 1981. Amer. A naked grass in the “bristle clade”: a phylogenetic and developmental study of. Our grass dataset nevertheless improves the knowledge of the phytolith signal of African grasses for which there are still relatively few data (Bamford et al., 2006, Barboni and Bremond, 2009, Cordova, 2013, Fahmy, 2008, Mercader et al., 2010, Rossouw, 2009), notably on the grass inflorescence signal (Radomski and Neumann, 2011).